A Study Guide: MATTER


Archimedes Blast From The Past-2

Archimedes Blast From The Past-2

Hello again!

In our Study class we will learn about a wise man who lived in the past called Archimedes.

Something “positive” about him: thanks to him and his inventions life is easier for us.

Something “negative” about him:  we have to learn a lot of  mathematics,  science, physics, technology, history and languages…

Everything is related! Remember this!




Hello everyone!
Here above you have a link to an online activity I would like you to do at home. It’s easy and I hope it will help you to review some important concepts  we have studied this year.
Write the questions and the answers in your notebooks; and of course, write your score in your notebook and in the blog.

Have a nice afternoon!


Energy transfer and storage – Activity

Here is a link to an online activity about Energy.


Go to the Energy Transfer and Storage ACTIVITY

What do the words kinetic, stored and thermal have in common? They are all types of energy.

  • Watch it several times.
  • Write down the important data.
  • And finally do the online test.

Have fun and learn a lot!    Have a nice week end!

This assignment is for next Friday!

The skeleton

The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. We are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support your body and allow you to move. Bones contain a lot of calcium (an element found in milk, broccoli, and other foods). Bones manufacture blood cells and store important minerals.

The longest bone in our bodies is the femur (thigh bone). The smallest bone is the stirrup bone inside the ear. Each hand has 26 bones in it. Your nose and ears are not made of bone; they are made of cartilage, a flexible substance that is not as hard as bone.

Joints: Bones are connected to other bones at joints. There are many different types of joints, including: fixed joints (such as in the skull, which consists of many bones), hinged joints (such as in the fingers and toes), and ball-and-socket joints (such as the shoulders and hips).

Differences between males and females: Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born.

You have finally finished your skeleton! Congratulations. Next Tuesday, 22nd of March, you have to turn in your skeleton and I will test your knowledge on the human skeleton! That means you have to memorize  ALL the bones we have studied including the names in English, Catalan and Spanish. Have a nice weekend!

All About Snails

Hello everybody! We have been working hard on science this evaluation. We have studied about:

  • Life processes.
  • Cells. Animal and plant cells. Specilazed cells. Tissues. The main plant and animal organs. The Human Body Organ Systems and their function.
  • The Human Skeleton.
  • The life cycle of the almond tree. Flower, pollination, fertilization, growth…, fruit and seed.
  • Venemous animals.
  • Snails. Classification. Internal and external anatomy. Life Cycle.

To learn about all these topics we have used photocopies, web links, lab practice (including a terrarium for snails),  aula virtual,  a hands on skeleton craft, visit to exhibition, answering and/or making questions, quizses and tests,  working individualy, in  pairs, little groups or all together.

Woh! We have worked a lot!  Now it’s time to finish with SNAILS. But don’t forget we are expecting them to mate and reproduce so that we can observe their whole life cycle in the LAB.

NEW ASSIGMENT: Read the following text and answer the questions.

Hope you like it!

Garden Snails

Characteristics of Snails

Snails can be found in gardens, in ponds and even in the sea. They belong to a group of animals with a soft body called molluscs (mollusks) which are related to oysters, clams, and other shellfish. Characteristically they have soft, unsegmented bodies. Normally, their soft bodies are protected by a hard shell. The scientific name for the garden snail is Helix aspersa. It is a gastropod which in latin means, gastro for stomach and pod for foot or just “a belly footed animal”. The body of the snail is long, moist and slimy. It has a shell to protect its soft body. When the snail is disturbed, it simply withdraws or pulls itself back into its shell. The snail also retreats into its shell and seals the entrance in dry weather to protect its body from drying up. A snail is most active at night and on cloudy days. It does not like the sunshine very much. During very cold weather or winter, it hibernates in the ground.

Snails have different shaped shells. It can be a single shell that is rounded, spiral high and pointed or it can be flat.

Some people keep snails in aquariums together with their fish. However, they must make sure that they control the number because snails reproduce rapidly !!

Snails do not like hot and dry conditions. They like it moist or humid and not too bright. You can collect some snails and put them into a transparent container. Put some leaves in it, keep it moist and you can observe and see how a snail moves and also its mouth part.

Snails can live up to 5 to 10 years. Some have been known to live up to 15 years.

Do you know where the snail’s eyes are ?

Yes, the eye is on the tip of the tentacle or at the base of the tentacle for marine species. The snail has two pairs of tentacles on its head. One pair is longer than the other pair. The eyes are on the longer pair. The shorter pair is used for smelling and feeling its way around. The tentacles are very important to the snail.

What and how does a snail eat ?

A snail have something called a radula in its mouth for grinding up its food. This radula is like a rough tongue, something like a file with rows of tiny teeth which it uses to scrap off leaves and flowers to eat. Many people get upset and farmers get angry when snails eat their plants and crops. Snails can cause serious damage to crops. Snails eat mostly living plants as well as decaying plants. They also chew on fruits and young succulent plant barks.

How big can the snail grow ?

The largest known land snail named Gee Geronimo was a Giant African Snail collected in Sierra Leone in 1976. It weighed about 2lb (900g) and measured over 15 inches (39.3cm) from snout to tail.

How does the snail move ?

The snail moves by creeping on a flat “foot” underneath the body. The band of muscles in the foot contract and expand and this create a kind of rippling movement that pushes the snail forward. The “foot” has a special gland that produces a slimy mucus to make a slippery track. You can often see these silvery tracks in the garden. The slime comes out from the front and hardens when it comes into contact with air. The snail is able to move on very sharp pointed needles, knife, razors and vines without being injured because the mucus-like secretion helps to protect its body.

Look at how the snail wraps its soft body around the branch so that it will not fall off.

Male or female ?

The snail is both male and female. Therefore, it can produce sperms and eggs at the same time ! Isn’t that incredible ? However, to fertilize the eggs, the snails need to exchange sperms with each other. An animal which is both a male and a female is called a hermaphrodite. The brown garden snail lays about 80 spherical shaped white or yellowish colored eggs at a time into the topsoil of the ground. It can lay eggs up to six times a year. Snails take about 2 years to become adults.

Life History of the snail

Snails spend many hours courting before they mate. They twist themselves around each other and cover themselves in frothy slime. After mating, each snail will go search for a soft ground to dig and lay its eggs. The snail lay its eggs in a nest, 2.5 to 4 cm deep in the soil. Each snail can lay an average of 85 eggs and they hatch in 2 to 4 weeks, depending on the temperature and moisture of the soil. The eggs are concealed with a mixture of soil and mucus. They are then covered with excrement. Low temperatures of less than 12C and low humidity inhibits laying eggs. Snails lay eggs most often during the warm and damp weather. It can be as often as once a month or every 6 weeks. Their most active months are from February to October.

The first thing that a newly hatched snail does is to find food. It will eat whatever that is left of its eggshell too. It will also eat any eggs that have not hatched yet. As the snail grows, its shell grows too in a spiral shape. The new shell is added at the opening of the shell. The part of the shell the baby snail was born with, ends up in the middle of the spiral.

The snails have enemies too

Snails have many natural enemies. They are the ground beetles, snakes, toads, turtles, and birds including chickens, ducks and geese.


It is fun to play in the country. If you come across a pond in the country, you will find animals like fish, prawns, insects and the pond snail. The pond snail is, in many ways like the garden snail. Pond snails are usually tan or dark brown in color.

How do they breathe in water ?

Some pond snails have gills to breathe in water. Those with gills will live at the bottom of the pond. Those that do not have gills, will come up to the surface to breathe. These snails will live on the surface so that they can come up to breathe easily.

Do you know that pond snails can be eaten ?

You can buy pond snails from a fish monger in the city. The flesh of the snail is very delicious. The French people especially, love to eat snails. One important thing to remember here is to make sure that you clean and rinse the pond snails with plenty of clean water to wash away the dirt and mud.

What does the pond snail feed on ?

The pond snail feeds mainly on plants like algae and microscopic creatures that are found on the surface of water weeds. They eat by scraping bits off with their rough tongue just like the garden snails.

How does the pond snail reproduce ?

The pond snail reproduces just like the garden snail. It is a hermaphrodite. The only difference is that, unlike the garden snail, the pond snail carries its fertilized eggs with it. The baby snail will only leave its mother when it is hatched.

How to collect pond snails ?

First of all, you will need a spade, fishing net, a container (to put your snails in). Make sure your container is not air tight so that the snails can breathe. You can do this by making tiny holes on the lid. You need a lid to cover your container because snails can crawl on any texture or surface. Choose a damp spot near the pond and then use your spade to loosen the ground and you will find many snails just beneath the surface.

NOW! Enter this link and answer the questions in your notebook.

Remember that each one of you has to answer to a question online so we can correct your work.




How do the Eyes Work. Why do we see in 3D?

Our eyes are organs that let us see. Eyes detect both brightness and color. Having two eyes separated on our face enables us to have depth perception (the ability to see the world in three dimensions – 3D).

HOW WE SEE: A whole series of events happens in order for us to see something.
First, light must reflect off an object. The light travels through the clear cornea of the eye, through the pupil and then the lens, which focuses the light onto the retina (the sensory tissue lining the back of the eye). In the retina, cells called rods detect light (they are photoreceptors) and cones detect colors. The rods and cones convert light rays into electrical impulses that are transmited to the brain along the optic nerve. The brain interprets the signals from the eyes and we then “see” what we are looking at.

Here are some videos to help you prepare your “EYE” presentations.

I hope you enjoy them.

Here are some definitions to add to your list. Check the ones you don’t have. What do they refer to? Do you know about any other sight misfunction or desease?


Aqueous humor – the clear, watery fluid inside the eye. It provides nutrients to the eye.
Astigmatism – a condition in which the lens is warped, causing images not to focus properly on the retina.
Binocular vision – the coordinated use of two eyes which gives the ability to see the world in three dimensions – 3D.
Cones – cells the in the retina that sense color. People have three types of cones, L cones that sense long wavelengths (reds, yellows), M cones that sense medium wavelengths (greens), and S cones that sense medium wavelengths (violets, blues).
Cornea – the clear, dome-shaped tissue covering the front of the eye.
Eyebrow – a patch of dense hair located above the eye.
Eyelash – one of the many hairs on the edge of the eyelids.
Eyelid – the flap of skin that can cover and protect the eye.
Farsighted – (also called hyperopia) a condition in which distant objects are seen more clearly than nearby objects because light is focused behind the retina, not on it.
Iris – the colored part of the eye – it controls the amount of light that enters the eye by changing the size of the pupil.
Lens – a crystalline structure located just behind the iris – it focuses light onto the retina.
Nearsighted – (also called myopia) a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because light is focused in front of the the retina, not on it.
Optic nerve – (also called cranial nerve II) the nerve that transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain.
Pupil – the opening in the center of the iris- it changes size as the amount of light changes (the more light, the smaller the hole).
Retina – light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye. It contains millions of photoreceptors (rods and cones) that convert light rays into electrical impulses that are relayed to the brain via the optic nerve.
Rods – cells the in the retina that sense brightness (they are photoreceptors). Night vision involves mostly rods (not cones). There are many more rods than cones.
Tear – clear, salty liquid that is produced by glands in the eyes.
Vitreous – a thick, transparent liquid that fills the center of the eye – it is mostly water and gives the eye its form and shape (also called the vitreous humor).