3.en.10 Memory



Memory is our ability to encode, store, retain and subsequently recall information and past experiences in the human brain.

It is the sum total of what we remember, and gives us the capability to learn and adapt from previous experiences as well as to build relationships. It is the ability to remember past experiences, and the power or process of recalling to mind previously learned facts, experiences, impressions, skills and habits. It is the store of things learned and retained from our activity or experience, as evidenced by modification of structure or behaviour, or by recall and recognition.

In this lesson we are going to learn a bit more about memory through a series of articles and other resources focusing on this issue and will help us understand a bit more of this essential human skill.



Task 1

To begin with, watch a short clip of Antonio Damasio, an eminent neuroscientist and founder of the Brain and Creativity Institute, and try to answer the question below:

How different are the ideas about how memory works we have now from 20 years ago?


If you would like to learn more about memory you can visit the following exhibition:

Memory Exhibition

You can also learn a bit more about The Human Memory in this website:

The Human Memory

If you would like to improve your memory, you can visit this website:



Task 2

Now your task will be to write a summary of an article related to memory. (between 130-150 words)

Everybody has been assigned different articles, which you have to read and summarize: (scroll down to the bottom of the page for some help about how to write a summary)

Article 1: Emil Hristov, Miguel Angel Cabañero, Àngel Blanch, Claudia Puche

Article 2: Aina Tous, Lovepreet Kaur, Philline Vicente

Article 3: Jilin Ye, Tatiana Diéguez, Sarah Borràs, Daryl Malunay

Article 4: Pilar Alcalde, Xisco García, Neus Roser

Article 5: Andrea Cuervo, Zandalie Pizarro, Judit Echeverría

Article 6: Sara Bouza, Idaira Santana, Pep Toni Font

Article 7: Pepe Coca, Denis Rahovean


How to write a summary

1. What is a summary?

  • A summary is a short, concise method of stating the main idea and significant supporting details of a reading.

  • A summary condenses a larger piece of work down to its essential parts.

  • It does not include copied material or a string of quotes from the text.

2. Techniques for summarising

  • A good method in summary writing is to start by writing summaries of paragraphs.

  • The key for doing this is by using all essential points in a paragraph and condensing them into only a few sentences – expressed in your own words – to reflect the writer’s thoughts.

  • A summary statement shows the relationship between several important ideas in a paragraph.

  • A summary statement should include the points from the main idea sentence as well as the essential points from the supporting sentences.

To write the summary statement you can use one of these two methods annotation and mapping:

a) Annotation:

  • Read the paragraph looking for all the important ideas and facts.

  • [Place brackets around the main idea.]

  • Underline key words and phrases that support the main idea.

  • Write key words in the margins.

  • Cross out any information that is not important.

b) Mapping:

  • Make a map with the information you underlined and marked.

  • Write a summary that includes all the important information you’ve identified.

  • Paraphrase – don’t copy the exact words from the reading: try to put the information in your own words.


Look at an example in the following presentation:

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